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Georgia School Dissuaded Immigrants from Enrolling

Georgia School Dissuaded Immigrants from Enrolling


On November 9, 2012, the Department of Justice reported findings into the investigation of the Henry County School District located in Henry County, Georgia.  The school district allegedly informed parents that they would withdraw students if parents failed to provide a social security number.  Also, the school district was suspected of failing to provide enrollment services to parents with limited English speaking proficiency.  


On Friday, the Department of Justice settled with the school district.  The district is now required to notify parents that providing a social security number is completely voluntary.  A child is lawfully guaranteed enrollment at the school even if they don’t provide a social security number.  Additionally, the school district is now training employees to work with parents with limited English speaking skills during the enrollment process.  


The Department of Justice started to investigate certain school district in the state of Georgia when it suspected there were unethical practices in the state.  The Georgia Department of Education notified all Georgia school districts that the Justice Department was conducting a state-wide investigation starting in September 2012.  


The school district directly violated Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974.  Title IV was violated because the public school district discriminated toward race and national origin, and the Act of 1974 was violated because the district did not take proper measures to bridge language barriers.  


Thomas E. Perez, Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division, states: “Public schools serve all children in this country, no matter where they or their parents were born.  No one benefits when a child is kept out of the classroom.  The Justice Department is committed to ensuring that all students and their families are welcomed in school, regardless of background.”


Source: U.S. Department of Justice

University of Mississippi School of Law

University of Mississippi School of Law

 


University of Mississippi School of Law

 

The University of Mississippi School of Law is a well-regarded public law school located in Oxford, Mississippi. The school well known for five programs which it operates in addition to the regular legal training that forms the core of its curriculum. Perhaps the most prominent program administered by the University of Mississippi School of Law is the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air and Space Law. This research facility is concerned with studying new developments in the field of aerospace law. The University of Mississippi School of Law offers a degree in aerospace law.

 

Another facility operated by the University of Mississippi School of Law is National Center for Justice and the Rule of Law. This organization is concerned with the criminal justice system. Specifically, this component of the University of Mississippi School of Law is primarily concerned with considering how laws concerning the administration of justice can be adjusted to be better administer justice.

 

Among the programs currently being run by the National Center for Justice and the Rule of Law, one is a Cyber Crime Initiative designed to train legal officials and help develop law on the prosecution of cyber crime. Another program is the Fourth Amendment Initiative, which works to provide continuing information and advice regarding search and seizure law enforcement tactics.

 

Another facility operated by the University of Mississippi School of Law is the Mississippi Innocence Project. This division of the school is concerned with investigating the cases of people who have been arrested, convicted and incarcerated for crimes which they have not committed. They provide legal representation for prisoners, work to develop legislation to reform the criminal justice system, and provide assistance for prisoners who have been released and need aid in reintegrating into society.

 

Another facility operated by the University of Mississippi School of Law is the Mississippi Law Research Institute, which is an official part of the state government. This institute serves as an advisory body in the creation of legislation for the state legislature, municipalities and state agencies. The Mississippi Law Research Institute also helps advise state universities. Its purpose is to provide research and information in an objective fashion.

Two subdivisions of the Mississippi Law Research Institute are the Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Legal Problem and the National Sea Grant Law Center. Both of these programs are concerned with researching and providing assistance in matters related to marine and coastal issues.

 

Another program operated by the University of Mississippi School of Law is the Mississippi Judicial College. The purpose of this organization is to train personnel who work in the state court system. These personnel include judges at all levels of the state court system, as well as court administrators, clerks and reporters. The Mississippi Judicial College also provides technical support to the courts and works to convey information to the state legislature about the needs of the court system.

FERPA

FERPA

FERPA for Students and Parents


The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, or the FERPA is a Federal law expressed in Title 20, section 1232 of the United States Code that protects the privacy of student education records. The act applies to all schools that receive any funds under an applicable federal program of the United States Department of Education.
FERPA give parents certain defined rights in respect to the education records of their children. These rights then transfer from the parent to the student when the student reaches 18 years or goes a school above the high school level, such as university. These students that have received the rights that were transferred from the parents are considered eligible students.
Any eligible student or parent has the right to review and inspect the student’s education records that are administered and maintained by the school under FERPA. However, schools are not legally required to provide any copies of records unless it is somehow impossible for either a student’s parent or an eligible student to review the education records, for example due to a great distance. Schools are also within their rights to charge a fee for copies made.
Under FERPA, a parent or an eligible student also has the legal right to request that a school makes a correction to an education records if they believe that the record is misleading or inaccurate. If the school chooses not to amend the education record, the eligible student or parent has the legal right to a formal hearing.
After the legal hearing, if the school still feels that it should not amend the record, the eligible student or parent then has the legal right as given by FERPA to add a statement with the education record with his or her view about the information that was contested.
Often, schools must obtain written permission from the eligible student or parent in order to release a student’s education record. However, under FERPA, schools are allowed to disclose those education records, without the student’s or parent’s consent, to the follow individuals or parties 
A school official with a legitimate educational interest 
A specified official for evaluation reasons or an audit
A school that the student is transferring to
An organization in connection with a student’s financial aid
Accrediting organizations
Organizations holding certain studies on behalf of the school or for the school
In accordance to a lawfully issued subpoena or judicial order 
Local and state authorities for a juvenile justice system, following state law
Safety or health emergencies
Schools may also disclose, without consent, a student’s information for the sake of a school directory, such as student’s name, phone number, address, awards and honors, birthdate, and attendance dates. However, the parents and eligible students must be informed about directory information by the school. A school must also give time for parents or eligible students to decline being put in the directory. Parents and eligible students must be notified of their rights as given by FERPA annually. This can be done through PTA bulletins, student handbooks, newspaper articles, or any other way a school feels is best.

Fulbright Scholarships

Fulbright Scholarships

Different Types of Fulbright scholarships


The Fulbright Scholarship is an international educational exchange program that was established in 1946 under the legislation introduced by former Senator J. William Fulbright. Today the Fulbright scholarship is sponsored by the Bureau of Educational & Cultural affairs under the United States Department of State.
Every year, Fulbright scholarships are awarded to about 7,500 students, adding up to approximately 294,000 total receivers of the grant in the last 60 years, with 183,000 of these individuals being from other countries.
The Fulbright scholarship receives its funding from the U.S. Congress, as well as participating governments and institutions in participating foreign countries. The United States also contributes through indirect support and cost-sharing, such as tuition wavers, university housing, and salary supplements. In 2008, the Congressional appropriation for the Fulbright scholarship was $215.4 million. Meanwhile other foreign government donated about $60 million to the program.
There are many different categories of Fulbright Scholarships, including both institutional and individual grants, as well as other exchange programs:
Roughly 1,100 American professionals and scholars are sent to approximately 125 countries, where they can conduct research or lecture in different academic and professional fields.
The Fulbright Specialist Program sends U.S. professionals and faculty to act as consultants on faculty development, curriculum, institutional planning and other related subjects at various overseas academic institutions for anywhere between 2 to 6 weeks.
The Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program gives grants to around 850 foreign scholars to conduct postdoctoral research or lecture at various U.S. institutions for an academic semester or an academic year.
The Fulbright Scholar-in-Residence Program allows U.S. universities and colleges to host foreign academics who can lecture on different subjects for either an academic semester or year. Preference for the grant is given to any institutions that are developing and serving a minority audience and/or have an international agenda. About 50 grants are awarded each year.
Other Fulbright scholarships and programs include:
The Fulbright U.S. Student Program provides fellowships for U.S. graduating college seniors, young professionals, graduate students, and artists to study overseas for an academic year. In 2008-2009, over 1,500 Americans studied abroad with either partial or full support.
The Fulbright English Teaching Assistantships Program puts U.S. students as English teaching assistants in universities or schools overseas, helping foreign students’ English abilities and U.S. knowledge while the student improves their own knowledge and language skills of the host country.
The Fulbright Foreign Student Program enables foreign young professionals, graduate students, and artists to study and research in the United States for one year or more. Approximately 1,700 newly established awards are given for support at U.S. universities, and about 1,350 awards are renewed annually.
The International Fulbright Science and Technology Award is for doctoral study at a prestigious institution in the United States in technology, science, engineering or other related fields for roughly 40 extraordinary foreign students annually.
The Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program is a one-to-one exchange of roughly 120 teachers from both primary along with secondary schools in the United States and ten foreign countries.

Fulbright

Fulbright

The Fulbright Program


The Fulbright program is sponsored by the Bureau of Educational & Cultural affairs under the United States Department of State. The program provides funding not only for students, but also teachers, scholars, and professionals who plan to take advance research, graduate study, and teaching on an elementary, secondary and university level.
The mission of the Fulbright Program includes:
Stimulating closer educational relationships between United States and other countries.
Reinforcement and connecting institutions of higher learning internationally.
Saving threatened scholars and promoting academic freedom.
Constructing leadership skills and improving the capacity of both organizations and individuals to address global and local challenges.
The Fulbright program was established in 1946 under the legislation introduced by former Senator J. William Fulbright. Every year, Fulbright scholarships are awarded to about 7,500 students, adding up to approximately 294,000 total receivers of the grant in the last 60 years, with 183,000 of these individuals being from other countries.
The Fulbright scholarship receives its funding from the U.S. Congress, as well as participating governments and institutions in participating foreign countries. The United States also contributes through indirect support and cost-sharing, such as tuition wavers, university housing, and salary supplements. In 2008, the Congressional appropriation for the Fulbright scholarship was $215.4 million. Meanwhile other foreign government donated about $60 million to the program.
There are many different categories of Fulbright Scholarships, including both institutional and individual grants, as well as other exchange programs:
Roughly 1,100 American professionals and scholars are sent to approximately 125 countries, where they can conduct research or lecture in different academic and professional fields.
The Fulbright Specialist Program sends U.S. professionals and faculty to act as consultants on faculty development, curriculum, institutional planning and other related subjects at various overseas academic institutions for anywhere between 2 to 6 weeks.
The Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program gives grants to around 850 foreign scholars to conduct postdoctoral research or lecture at various U.S. institutions for an academic semester or an academic year.
The Fulbright Scholar-in-Residence Program allows U.S. universities and colleges to host foreign academics who can lecture on different subjects for either an academic semester or year. Preference for the grant is given to any institutions that are developing and serving a minority audience and/or have an international agenda. About 50 grants are awarded each year.

Other Fulbright scholarships and programs include:
The Fulbright U.S. Student Program provides fellowships for U.S. graduating college seniors, young professionals, graduate students, and artists to study overseas for an academic year. In 2008-2009, over 1,500 Americans studied abroad with either partial or full support.
The Fulbright English Teaching Assistantships Program puts U.S. students as English teaching assistants in universities or schools overseas, helping foreign students’ English abilities and U.S. knowledge while the student improves their own knowledge and language skills of the host country.
The Fulbright Foreign Student Program enables foreign young professionals, graduate students, and artists to study and research in the United States for at least 1 year or more. Approximately 1,700 newly established awards are given for support at U.S. universities, and about 1,350 awards are renewed annually.
The International Fulbright Science and Technology Award is for doctoral study at a prestigious institution in the United States in technology, science, engineering or other related fields for roughly 40 extraordinary foreign students annually.
The Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program is a one-to-one exchange of roughly 120 teachers from both primary along with secondary schools in the United States and ten other foreign countries.

FERPA Regulations

FERPA Regulations

What is FERPA?
FERPA (short for the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) is a Federal law that guards the privacy of student education records. FERPA is applied to all schools that receive funds under any applicable programs of the United States Department of Education. 
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) delivers certain rights to parents with respect to their child’s education records. These rights are offered to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or enters schooling beyond the high school level. Any student who receives these rights is deemed “eligible students” under FERPA.

Rights Awarded Under FERPA:
Eligible students or parents maintain the right to review the student’s education records that are formally maintained by the school. All academic institutions are not required to provide copies of said records unless it is deemed impossible for the parents and eligible students to review the records—remote location from the school is an acceptable reason.
Eligible students or parents maintain the right to request that an academic institution correct records if they believe said records to be misleading or inaccurate. If the academic institution decides not to edit the record, the eligible student or parent possesses the right to engage in a formal hearing. Upon the conclusion of the hearing, the eligible student or parent—if the school still decides not to alter the record—has the right to place a statement with the record to establish his or her view with regards to the contested information. 
In general, academic institutions must exhibit written permission from the eligible student or parent in order to release any information from a student’s education record. That being said, FERPA permits any academic institution to disclose these records, without consent, to the following institutions or individuals under the following conditions:
Any school official who exhibits a legitimate educational interest
Other academic institutions to which the student is transferring
Any appropriate party in connection with financial aid to the student
Accrediting organizations
State and local government bodies, within the juvenile system, pursuant to state law
Certain officials who implement evaluation or audit purposes
An academic institution may disclose, without any consent, “directory” information such as the student’s name, telephone number, date of birth, address, dates of attendance and any scholastic achievements if applicable. That being said, an academic institution must notify all eligible students and all parents concerning directory information and offer eligible students and parents a reasonable amount of time to request the institution to not disclose directory information about them. Academic institutions must notify eligible students and parents annually of their rights offered by FERPA. The means of notification (PTA bulletins, student handbooks or newspaper articles) is left to the discretion of each institution.  

School Violence Statistics of the United States

School Violence Statistics of the United States

School Violence Statistics of the United States


School violence is a subcategory of youth violence, which is a much broader public health problem that affects American society.  Youth violence has to do with the intentional use of power or physical force by a young individual between 10 and 24 years old against another person, community, or group. The result of the youth’s violent behavior is usually physical or psychological harm to others.  
In the United States, there is an estimated 50 million students who are enrolled in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. There is also an additional 15 million students who attend universities and colleges across the country. While most schools in the United States are relatively safe and do not experience school violence, any amount of school violence is considered unacceptable.
Teachers, parents, and administrators look at schools as a safe haven of learning. Any acts of school violence can easily disrupt this learning process and have detrimental effects on the school, students, and the community as a whole.
School violence looks at violent behavior that happens: 
On the grounds school property
On the way to school (or from school)
During any school-sponsored event
On the way to a school-sponsored event (or from the event)
Some examples of school violence 
Bullying
Gang violence
Fighting such as punching, kicking, and slapping
Use of weapon(s)
Electronic aggression
Here are some important findings on school violence from the National Center for Education Statistics:
Among students ages 5–18, 38 school-associated violent deaths occurred between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2009. 24 of these deaths were homicides, while 14 deaths were suicides.
There were also 1,701 homicides among the youth ages 5–18. In the 2007 calendar year, there were youth 1,231 suicides.
Among students ages 12–18 in 2008, there were approximately 1.2 million nonfatal crime victims, which included 619,000 thefts and 629,800 violent crimes such as simple assault.
The total crime and theft victimization in-school rates of students between the ages 12 to 18 went down between 2007 and 2008 from 57 victimizations per 1,000 students to 47 in 2008.
8% of students in 2008 reported being injured or threatened or injured with a weapon, on school property
In 2009, 10% of male students in grades 9 through 12 reported being injured or threatened with a weapon by another student on school property, compared to 5% of female students.
In the 2007–08 school year, 10% of teachers in city schools reported being threatened with injury. 7% of teachers in town schools and 6% of suburban and rural schools have experienced threats of injury.
5% of teachers in city schools and 4% of suburban schools reported actually being physically attacked, which is more than the 3% of teachers in rural schools.