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What Are The Types of Education Grants

What Are The Types of Education Grants

What are Education Grants?

Grants are streams of funding, offered by a government body or organization. There are several types of grants, which are delivered to organizations or individuals for the purpose of starting a business, providing an education or offering some sort of tangible good or service to bolster society’s well-being. Education grants, using this loose definition of grants, are an avenue of financing used to mitigate the cost of higher education. Education grants may be applied for by completing tuition assistance forms, which will ask for basic information concerning your personal finances. In some inctances education lawyer may assist on reviewing your case.

Types of Education Grants:

Private Education Grants:

Private education grants are funds (gifts of money) offered from private organizations to students. Unlike a loan, a private education grant is not repaid to the issuing organization—although same may require the fulfillment of state or federal taxes. Additionally, private education grants differ from public grants, in that they are not offered by the school itself or a governing body; instead, private education grants rely on funding from the private sector, such as endowments, company profits or private donations.

The majority of private education grants offer a need-based availability; meaning to receive consideration for a private education grant, the applicant must complete an application that offers financial disclosure. These forms of grants may be also issued on a merit-based scale. Applicants who supply information concerning their successes, community service, career goals and academic performance may be eligible to receive private funding.

In addition to need-based or merit-based grants, the majority of private education grants are awarded based on specific circumstances of the student; for instance, grants are commonly made available only to applicants of certain national origins, socioeconomic positions, races, or those with physical or mental disabilities. 

Adult Education Grants:

These types of education grants refer to the extension of funds to qualified adults who wish to continue their education at a higher institution of learning. Adult education grants may be issued by a particular educational institution, a community organization—such as a charity–, private citizens, or a government entity. In the majority of instances, adult education grants are paid directly to the school where the adult student is enrolled—any funds left over after tuition and fees are fulfilled are made available to the student to help with books and other expenses directed towards the educational process.

There are several types of adult education grants; some are geared towards a particular course of study, such as education, music, business administration, or art. Music education grants typically require some type of credentials on the front end that would indicate that the applicant has the talent to successfully complete a degree program in this specific area. Other forms of adult education grants can be used with a number of different approve degree programs. Past academic performance is also crucial when applying for any type of adult education grants. Similar to a private education grant, adult education grants may also be issued on a need basis. 

How do I get Grant Money for Education?

In most instances, an education grant is a specific amount of money offered to qualified students who are attending post-secondary education programs. The first place to look for information regarding education grants is your local university or college. Contact your admissions counselor, your student financial aid office or your program administrative coordinator. These offices will advise you concerning the different grants available, the application timelines and all supporting documentation requirements. 

In order to receive grant money, you must meet specific application criteria; in general, there are two types of grants: merit based and hardship grants. Hardship grants are offered to help students who are struggling financially, while merit based grants are driven by academic or athletic success, combined with financial need. 


Your Guide to Online Education

Your Guide to Online Education

What is Online Education?
Online education or E-Learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching resources, programs and protocol. The communication systems and information, serve as the foundation and the specific media to implement the learning process online. Online education, as a basic term, is predominantly utilized to reference an out-of-classroom learning environment, as well as in-classroom educational efforts that are delivered and expedited via technology. 
Online education is essentially the network-enabled and computerized transfer of knowledge and skills to the coordinating student base. Various online education applications and processes include the following resources or teaching techniques: web-based learning curriculums, computer-based learning programs, virtual classroom devices and digital collaboration. 

Online Education K-12:
Online education, although more prevalent in higher education, is also utilized by public K-12 schools in the United States of America. Although some online education learning environments take place in a traditional classroom setting, the majority of online education students attend classes from their own homes or other locations. In fact, as a result of the mitigated costs and increased effectiveness associated with online education, there a number of states in America that utilize cyber and virtual school platforms. 
As stated before, online education platforms who offer educational resources for K-12 students are rarer but can be engaged as a homeschool-type system. Public cyber schools are offered throughout the country; these schools enable students to log into synchronous or asynchronous courses wherever an internet connection is provided. To implement the online education curriculum, the majority of K-12 e-learning programs provide students with technology kits that include computers, printers and compensation for home internet use.
Students enrolled in these programs are required to use this technology for school use only and must meet the weekly work submission requirements handed-out by the providers. Those teachers employed by K-12 online public schools must obtain certification in the state they are teaching in. The most notable benefit of an online education K-12 is that students are able to maintain their own pacing and progress, as well as their own course selection. These characteristics provide the student with great flexibility in regards to schedule and curriculum creation.
Online Higher Education:
By 2010, nearly 5 million students were participating in online education at institutions of higher learning in the United States. A number of higher educations, for-profit institutions will now offer on-line classes. Although these numbers dissipate when evaluated in the private sector, the availability of online courses is now becoming commonplace for many private institutions.
Online courses for higher learning are made available for students enrolled in such institutions who have priorities, such as work or families, which impede them from attending the traditional classroom setting. All online education courses offered at an institution of higher learning must have properly trained staff that is available to work with the students through a technology-based medium. These staff members are required to understand the content area and must also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. 

Secondary Education Explained

Secondary Education Explained

Education Defined:

In the most basic sense, education refers to any act or experience that yields a formative effect on the character, mind or physical ability of an individual, particularly a child. In a technical sense, education refers to the process by which social functions deliberately transmit an accumulated knowledge, skill-set and system of values from one generation to another. 
The foundation of the educational system is built by teaching professionals. Teachers in educational institutions are responsible for directing the education of students through the delivery of various educational resources as well as knowledge concerning a wide array of subjects including: reading, writing, science, history, health, mathematics etc.
The process of teaching a particular subject, which is commonly found at the non-elementary levels of education and carried-out by teachers or professors at institutions of higher learning, is referred to as schooling. Furthermore, there are also educational fields and institutions for those who want a more specific vocational skill-set or who would like to be educated in an informal setting. These institutions, such as museums, libraries and the Internet space can be an effective and more personal experience regarding the ability to obtain knowledge.
What is Secondary Education?
Secondary education refers to a specific stage of education; although the definitions vary regarding location, in the most general of definitions, secondary education refers to the stage of learning that directly follows primary school. In the majority of jurisdictions throughout the world, secondary education is the final stage of compulsory education. That being said, in some developed nations, secondary education can also refer to a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory (college or university work) education. 
This level of education is typically characterized by the transition from the compulsory, comprehensive educational system offered to minors, to the optional or selective tertiary “higher” education for adults. With that in mind, secondary education, in the majority of developed nations, will include university and vocational schools, but depending on the systems, high schools, middle schools and prepatory schools may also be grouped in the secondary classification. 
Secondary Education in the United States of America:
Based on the education program of the United States, secondary education is formally defined and comprised of grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. As a result of this classification system, secondary education will typically denote high school learning—although many jurisdictions will offer grades 6-8 in a middle school and 9-12 in a high school. Regardless of the jurisdictional system of schools, secondary education in the United States incorporates all learning achieved at grade levels 6 through 12. 

Understanding Special Education

Understanding Special Education

What is Special Education?

Special education refers to the education of students with special needs. As a result of the student’s inherent or physical disability, special education platforms provide resources in a way that specifically addresses the students’ individual differences and needs. In an ideal setting, the process of special education involves the individually planned and systematically monitored delivery of teaching procedures, which is personally adapted through the inclusion of specialized equipment and materials and accessible settings designed to aid learners with special needs.
Through the delivery of such resources, special education programs aim to provide those students with special needs the ability to grasp teachings to achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency, as well as an advanced level of success in school and their community. Without the inclusion of these resources and through the delivery of teachings that would be supplied in a typical classroom environment, a special needs student would not be able to grasp the curriculum and a desired level of self-sufficiency to properly assimilate into society.
Common special needs education typically aims to provide aid to students who possess the following disabilities: problems with learning, communication challenges, physical disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders and developmental disorders. Students who possess these disabilities require the resources and attention offered in a special education platform; these students are likely to benefit from additional educational services, most notably different approaches to teaching, the use of technology to expedite physical or mental impediments and a specifically adapted teaching area. 
Special Education in the United States:
All countries will offer and carry-out their specific special education programs in different ways. In the United States, all special-needs students receive an Individualized Education Program, which specifically outlines how the special education program or school will satisfy the student’s individual needs. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, for instance, will require that students with special needs be given a Free Appropriate Public Education in the Least Restrictive Environment that meets the appropriate needs of the student. 
Government-run and funded schools in the United States will offer varying degrees of special education, from the least restrictive characteristics, such as full inclusion, to more restrictive settings, such as segregation and the development of a special school.
Regardless of the settings, the education offered by the particular school must meet the student’s individual needs. That being said, schools in the United States are not required to maximize their particular student’s potential or to provide the best special education services provided—they are simply required to provide resources for individual students with special needs that are successful in satisfying the student’s specific needs.
In the United States, approximately 6 million children (based on statistics offered by the Department of Education) or roughly 10% of all school-aged children, currently are entitled to and subsequently receive some sort of special education services. These statistics; however, are somewhat inflated, for they include poor or ethnic minorities who do not speak the dominant language of the region or school. Additionally, those under-funded schools who are not able to cope or provide for students with behavioral problems are added into this equation. 

Systems of Education

Systems of Education

Systems of Formal Education:

Education, which is the formal or informal process by which people learn and gain knowledge, is delivered in a multitude of mediums. The following are examples of systems of formal education:

 •      Levels of Education: Primary education refers to the first 5 to 7 years of formal or structured education. In a general sense, primary education consists of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this age will vary between and within countries. Based on the Education for All programs, enacted by UNESCO, the majority of countries have committed to achieving a universal enrollment in regards to primary education by 2015 and in many other countries, it is compulsory for children to receive state or government-provided primary education

 •      Instruction: This form of education refers to the facilitation of learning typically prompted by a teacher

 •      Learning: This form of education refers to learning with a view toward preparing students with a specific knowledge, skill-set, or ability that can be directly applied immediately following completion

 •      Teaching: Refers to the direct actions of a live instructor or teacher to impart knowledge to a student body.

That being said, the division between primary and secondary education is typically random; generally the division occurs when the student reaches the age of eleven or twelve. Some education systems, particularly in the United States, have separate middle schools that provide a transition to the final stage of secondary education. Educational institutions that provide primary education, which are typically known as primary schools, are often subdivided into infant and junior schools.

In the majority of contemporary educational systems, secondary education is comprised of formal education that occurs during an individual’s adolescence. This level of education is characterized by the transition from the typically compulsory, primary education for minors, to optional post-secondary or higher education, such as university schooling or vocational schools for adults. The exact definition of secondary education will vary from one system to another; the boundary between primary and secondary education will also vary from country to country. 

Higher education, or the third stage of education, refers to the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing secondary education. This form of education will typically include both undergraduate and post-graduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the principal institutions that provide this form of education. 


Distance Education Council Explained

Distance Education Council Explained

What is the Distance Education Council?
The Distance Education Council is a government organization based in New Delhi, India primarily responsible for the promotion and coordination of the distance education system and Open University program, as well as for the determination of its standards in the nation of India.
The Distance Education Council was officially constituted under the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act of 1985. As an organization, the Distance Education Council is consistent with the duty of the University structure, which is responsible for securing and promoting all steps as it may deem appropriate for the promotion of the Open University premise.
 In addition to promoting these programs, the Distance Education council is required to coordinate and determine various education standards of India, including evaluation and research in all education systems, teaching facilities, the effectiveness of teachers and in pursuance of the educational objects at the University level, to encourage greater diversity accessibility, mobility, flexibility and innovation in education at the University level.
The Distance Education Council aims to achieve these goals and satisfy these responsibilities by making full use of the most innovative and latest scientific knowledge and new educational technology. By using these innovative and evolved forms of teaching, the Distance Education Council also further coordinates and solidifies relationships between the universities in New Delhi. 
What is Distance and Open Education?
Distance education or distance learning, is a distinct area of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology to ultimately deliver educational resources and teaching–most often on an individual basis–to students who are not able to physically attend a traditional classroom.
What is the Indira Gandhi National Open University?
The Indira Gandhi National Open University is a national university headquartered in New Delhi, Delhi, India. Named after a former Prime Minister of India, the Indira Gandhi National Open University was established in 1985, when the Parliament of India passed the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act of 1985. As a school, the Indira Gandhi National Open University is the largest school in the world, with over 3,000,000 students currently enrolled.
The school was founded to impart education through the means of a distance and open education, to offer higher education opportunities to the disadvantaged segments of society and to encourage, as well as coordinate standards for distance and open education in the country.

What are The Focuses of Environmental Education

What are The Focuses of Environmental Education


What is Environmental Education?

Environmental education is an organized effort to teach about how natural ecosystems or environments function and more specifically, how human beings can manage their behavior in order to promote healthy and stable living. Environmental education, as a term, is typically used to imply educational efforts within a school system, from primary to post-secondary, in order to teach humans about the environment and particularly, how our actions affect the ecosystem.

In a broader sense, however, environmental education is sometimes used to include all efforts to educate the public and other audiences through the use of non-traditional educational mediums, such as the delivery of print materials, media campaigns and websites. 

Environmental education is a teaching/learning process that aims at increasing an individual’s knowledge and awareness concerning the environment and associated challenges. Environmental education aims to develop necessary skills and expertise to address environment-related challenges, through the obtainment of attitudes and commitments to produce informed decisions and take responsible action. 

The Focus of Environmental Education:

Environmental education focuses on the following subjects:

Environmental education aims to boost awareness and sensitivity concerning the environment and changes to the environment.

Environmental education aims to increase knowledge and understanding concerning the environment and its challenges

Environmental education aims to bolster our attitude concerning the environment; the teaching platform aims to maintain environmental quality

Environmental education offers skills to help mitigate environmental problems collaborating with education lawyer.

The field of study provides participation organizations to exercise existing knowledge and environmental related programs. 

Environmental Education in the United States:

In the 1980s, several non-governmental organizations that previously focused on environmental education, continued to evolve and grow; the number of teachers implementing environmental education in their respective classrooms greatly increased throughout the subsequent decades. As the field became more popular in a localized sense, environmental education gained stronger political backing.

The field bolstered its effectiveness when the United States Congress passed the National Environmental Education Act of 1990, which positioned the Office of Environmental Education in the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency and allowed the EPA to create and subsequently provide several environmental education initiatives at the federal level. 

In the school system, environmental education is considered an additional or elective subject in the traditional K-12 curriculum. At the elementary school level, the field can the form of science enrichment subjects, community service projects, natural history field trips and loose participation in science schools.

Public schools have the ability to integrate the subject matter into their respective curricula through the aid of sufficient funding from environmental education policies. By utilizing this approach, a school will effectively place environmental education into the core subjects; as a non-elective, environmental education will not take time or resources away from other important subjects, such as music or art. 

In a secondary setting, environmental education can take the form of a focused subject within the sciences or as a part of elective student clubs. At the undergraduate or graduate level, the subject can be considered its own specified field within education, environmental science and policy, ecology or environmental studies. 


No Child Left Behind Act: Text

No Child Left Behind Act: Text

No Child Left Behind Full Text:
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday,
the third day of January, two thousand and one
An Act 
To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
This title may be cited as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Table of contents.
Sec. 3. References.
Sec. 4. Transition.
Sec. 5. Effective date.
Sec. 6. Table of contents of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
Sec. 101. Improving the academic achievement of the disadvantaged.
Sec. 201. Teacher and principal training and recruiting fund.
Sec. 202. Continuation of awards.
Sec. 301. Language instruction for limited English proficient children and immigrant children and youth.
Sec. 401. 21st Century schools.
Sec. 501. Innovative programs and parental choice provisions.
Sec. 502. Continuation of awards.
Sec. 601. Flexibility and accountability.
Sec. 602. Amendment to the National Education Statistics Act of 1994.
Sec. 701. Indians, Native Hawaiians, and Alaska Natives.
Sec. 702. Conforming amendments.
Sec. 703. Savings provisions.
Sec. 801. Payments relating to Federal acquisition of real property.
Sec. 802. Payments for eligible federally connected children.
Sec. 803. Construction.
Sec. 804. State consideration of payments in providing State aid.
Sec. 805. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 901. General provisions.
Part A—Repeals
Sec. 1011. Repeals.
Sec. 1012. Conforming clerical and technical amendments.
Part B—Redesignations
Sec. 1021. Comprehensive Regional Assistance Centers.
Sec. 1022. National Diffusion Network.
Sec. 1023. Eisenhower Regional Mathematics and Science Education Consortia.
Sec. 1024. Technology-based technical assistance.
Sec. 1025. Conforming amendments.
Part C—Homeless Education
Sec. 1031. Short title.
Sec. 1032. Education for homeless children and youths.
Sec. 1033. Conforming amendment.
Sec. 1034. Technical amendment.
Part D—Native American Education Improvement
Sec. 1041. Short title.
Sec. 1042. Amendments to the Education Amendments of 1978.
Sec. 1043. Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988.
Sec. 1044. Lease payments by the Ojibwa Indian School.
Sec. 1045. Enrollment and general assistance payments.
Sec. 1051. Preparing tomorrow’s teachers to use technology.
Sec. 1052. Continuation of awards.
Part F—General Education Provisions Act
Sec. 1061. Student privacy, parental access to information, and administration of certain physical examinations to minors.
Sec. 1062. Technical corrections.
Part G—Miscellaneous Other Statutes
Sec. 1071. Title 5 of the United States Code.
Sec. 1072. Department of Education Organization Act.
Sec. 1073. Education Flexibility Partnership Act of 1999.
Sec. 1074. Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994.
Sec. 1075. National Child Protection Act of 1993.
Sec. 1076. Technical and conforming amendments.
Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this Act an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.).
(a) MULTI-YEAR AWARDS- Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the recipient of a multi-year award under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as that Act was in effect prior to the date of enactment of this Act, shall continue to receive funds in accordance with the terms of that award, except that no additional funds may be awarded after September 30, 2002.
(b) PLANNING AND TRANSITION- Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a recipient of funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as that Act was in effect prior to the date of enactment of this Act, may use funds available to the recipient under that predecessor authority to carry out necessary and reasonable planning and transition activities in order to ensure an orderly implementation of programs authorized by this Act, and the amendments made by this Act.
(c) ORDERLY TRANSITION- The Secretary shall take such steps as are necessary to provide for the orderly transition to, and implementation of, programs authorized by this Act, and by the amendments made by this Act, from programs authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as that Act was in effect prior to the date of enactment of this Act.
(a) IN GENERAL- Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, shall be effective upon the date of enactment of this Act.
(b) NONCOMPETITIVE PROGRAMS- With respect to noncompetitive programs under which any funds are allotted by the Secretary of Education to recipients on the basis of a formula, this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, shall take effect on July 1, 2002.
(c) COMPETITIVE PROGRAMS- With respect to programs that are conducted by the Secretary on a competitive basis, this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, shall take effect with respect to appropriations for use under those programs for fiscal year 2002.
(d) IMPACT AID- With respect to title VIII (Impact Aid), this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, shall take effect with respect to appropriations for use under that title for fiscal year 2002.
The Act is amended —
(1) in the heading of section 1, by striking ‘table of contents’ and inserting ‘short title’; and
(2) by adding after section 1 the following new section:
The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Table of contents.
Sec. 1001. Statement of purpose.
Sec. 1002. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 1003. School improvement.
Sec. 1004. State administration.
Part A —Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies
Subpart 1 —Basic Program Requirements
Sec. 1111. State plans.
Sec. 1112. Local educational agency plans.
Sec. 1113. Eligible school attendance areas.
Sec. 1114. Schoolwide programs.
Sec. 1115. Targeted assistance schools.
Sec. 1116. Academic assessment and local educational agency and school improvement.
Sec. 1117. School support and recognition.
Sec. 1118. Parental involvement.
Sec. 1119. Qualifications for teachers and paraprofessionals.
Sec. 1120. Participation of children enrolled in private schools.
Sec. 1120A. Fiscal requirements.
Sec. 1120B. Coordination requirements.
Subpart 2 —Allocations
Sec. 1121. Grants for the outlying areas and the Secretary of the Interior.
Sec. 1122. Allocations to States.
Sec. 1124. Basic grants to local educational agencies.
Sec. 1124A. Concentration grants to local educational agencies.
Sec. 1125. Targeted grants to local educational agencies.
Sec. 1125AA. Adequacy of funding of targeted grants to local educational agencies in fiscal years after fiscal year 2001.
Sec. 1125A. Education finance incentive grant program.
Sec. 1126. Special allocation procedures.
Sec. 1127. Carryover and waiver.
Part B —Student Reading Skills Improvement Grants
Subpart 1 —Reading First
Sec. 1201. Purposes.
Sec. 1202. Formula grants to State educational agencies.
Sec. 1203. State formula grant applications.
Sec. 1204. Targeted assistance grants.
Sec. 1205. External evaluation.
Sec. 1206. National activities.
Sec. 1207. Information dissemination.
Sec. 1208. Definitions.
Subpart 2 —Early Reading First
Sec. 1221. Purposes; definitions.
Sec. 1222. Local Early Reading First grants.
Sec. 1223. Federal administration.
Sec. 1224. Information dissemination.
Sec. 1225. Reporting requirements.
Sec. 1226. Evaluation.
Subpart 3 —William F. Goodling Even Start Family Literacy Programs
Sec. 1231. Statement of purpose.
Sec. 1232. Program authorized.
Sec. 1233. State educational agency programs.
Sec. 1234. Uses of funds.
Sec. 1235. Program elements.
Sec. 1236. Eligible participants.
Sec. 1237. Applications.
Sec. 1238. Award of subgrants.
Sec. 1239. Evaluation.
Sec. 1240. Indicators of program quality.
Sec. 1241. Research.
Sec. 1242. Construction.
Subpart 4 —Improving Literacy Through School Libraries
Sec. 1251. Improving literacy through school libraries.
Part C —Education of Migratory Children
Sec. 1301. Program purpose.
Sec. 1302. Program authorized.
Sec. 1303. State allocations.
Sec. 1304. State applications; services.
Sec. 1305. Secretarial approval; peer review.
Sec. 1306. Comprehensive needs assessment and service-delivery plan; authorized activities.
Sec. 1307. Bypass.
Sec. 1308. Coordination of migrant education activities.
Sec. 1309. Definitions.
Part D —Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-risk
Sec. 1401. Purpose and program authorization.
Sec. 1402. Payments for programs under this part.
Subpart 1 —State Agency Programs
Sec. 1411. Eligibility.
Sec. 1412. Allocation of funds.
Sec. 1413. State reallocation of funds.
Sec. 1414. State plan and State agency applications.
Sec. 1415. Use of funds.
Sec. 1416. Institution-wide projects.
Sec. 1417. Three-year programs or projects.
Sec. 1418. Transition services.
Sec. 1419. Evaluation; technical assistance; annual model program.
Subpart 2 —Local Agency Programs
Sec. 1421. Purpose.
Sec. 1422. Programs operated by local educational agencies.
Sec. 1423. Local educational agency applications.
Sec. 1424. Uses of funds.
Sec. 1425. Program requirements for correctional facilities receiving funds under this section.
Sec. 1426. Accountability.
Subpart 3 —General Provisions
Sec. 1431. Program evaluations.
Sec. 1432. Definitions.
Part E —National Assessment of Title I
Sec. 1501. Evaluations.
Sec. 1502. Demonstrations of innovative practices.
Sec. 1503. Assessment evaluation.
Sec. 1504. Close Up fellowship program.
Part F —Comprehensive School Reform
Sec. 1601. Purpose.
Sec. 1602. Program authorization.
Sec. 1603. State applications.
Sec. 1604. State use of funds.
Sec. 1605. Local applications.
Sec. 1606. Local use of funds.
Sec. 1607. Evaluation and reports.
Sec. 1608. Quality initiatives.
Part G —Advanced Placement Programs
Sec. 1701. Short title.
Sec. 1702. Purposes.
Sec. 1703. Funding distribution rule.
Sec. 1704. Advanced placement test fee program.
Sec. 1705. Advanced placement incentive program grants.
Sec. 1706. Supplement, not supplant.
Sec. 1707. Definitions.
Part H —School Dropout Prevention
Sec. 1801. Short title.
Sec. 1802. Purpose.
Sec. 1803. Authorization of appropriations.
Subpart 1 —Coordinated National Strategy
Sec. 1811. National activities.
Subpart 2 —School Dropout Prevention Initiative
Sec. 1821. Definitions.
Sec. 1822. Program authorized.
Sec. 1823. Applications.
Sec. 1824. State reservation.
Sec. 1825. Strategies and capacity building.
Sec. 1826. Selection of local educational agencies for subgrants.
Sec. 1827. Community based organizations.
Sec. 1828. Technical assistance.
Sec. 1829. School dropout rate calculation.
Sec. 1830. Reporting and accountability.
Part I —General Provisions
Sec. 1901. Federal regulations.
Sec. 1902. Agreements and records.
Sec. 1903. State administration.
Sec. 1904. Local educational agency spending audits.
Sec. 1905. Prohibition against Federal mandates, direction, or control.
Sec. 1906. Rule of construction on equalized spending.
Sec. 1907. State report on dropout data.
Sec. 1908. Regulations for sections 1111 and 1116.
Part A —Teacher and Principal Training and Recruiting Fund
Sec. 2101. Purpose.
Sec. 2102. Definitions.
Sec. 2103. Authorizations of appropriations.
Subpart 1 —Grants to States
Sec. 2111. Allotments to States.
Sec. 2112. State applications.
Sec. 2113. State use of funds.
Subpart 2 —Subgrants to Local Educational Agencies
Sec. 2121. Allocations to local educational agencies.
Sec. 2122. Local applications and needs assessment.
Sec. 2123. Local use of funds.
Subpart 3 —Subgrants to Eligible Partnerships
Sec. 2131. Definitions.
Sec. 2132. Subgrants.
Sec. 2133. Applications.
Sec. 2134. Use of funds.
Subpart 4 —Accountability
Sec. 2141. Technical assistance and accountability.
Subpart 5 —National Activities
Sec. 2151. National activities of demonstrated effectiveness.
Part B —Mathematics and Science Partnerships
Sec. 2201. Purpose; definitions.
Sec. 2202. Grants for mathematics and science partnerships.
Sec. 2203. Authorization of appropriations.
Part C —Innovation for Teacher Quality
Subpart 1 —Transitions to Teaching
Sec. 2301. Definitions.
Sec. 2302. Authorization of Troops-to-Teachers Program.
Sec. 2303. Recruitment and selection of program participants.
Sec. 2304. Participation agreement and financial assistance.
Sec. 2305. Participation by States.
Sec. 2306. Support of innovative preretirement teacher certification programs.
Sec. 2307. Reporting requirements.
Sec. 2311. Purposes.
Sec. 2312. Definitions.
Sec. 2313. Grant program.
Sec. 2314. Evaluation and accountability for recruiting and retaining teachers.
Sec. 2321. Authorization of appropriations.
Subpart 2 —National Writing Project
Sec. 2331. Purposes.
Sec. 2332. National Writing Project.
Subpart 3 —Civic Education
Sec. 2341. Short title.
Sec. 2342. Purpose.
Sec. 2343. General authority.
Sec. 2344. We the People program.
Sec. 2345. Cooperative civic education and economic education exchange programs.
Sec. 2346. Authorization of appropriations.
Subpart 4 —Teaching of Traditional American History
Sec. 2351. Establishment of program.
Sec. 2352. Authorization of appropriations.
Subpart 5 —Teacher Liability Protection
Sec. 2361. Short title.
Sec. 2362. Purpose.
Sec. 2363. Definitions.
Sec. 2364. Applicability.
Sec. 2365. Preemption and election of State nonapplicability.
Sec. 2366. Limitation on liability for teachers.
Sec. 2367. Allocation of responsibility for noneconomic loss.
Sec. 2368. Effective date.
Part D —Enhancing Education Through Technology





Overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a federal statute that provides federal funds to assist states in the providing for the education of children with disabilities.  It has its origins in the codification of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 and was revised in 1990 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Act.  

Who does the Individuals with Disabilities Act apply to?

The Individuals with Disabilities Act applies to children between the ages of 3 and 21 who demonstrate any one of the following physical or mental disabilities:

• Autism

• Deaf-Blindness

• Deafness

• Developmental delay

• Emotional disturbance

• Hearing impairment

• Intellectual Disability

• Multiple disorders

• Orthopedic Impairment

• Other health impairment

• Specific Learning Disability 

• Speech or language impairment

• Traumatic brain injury

• Visual impairment, including blindness

The specifics about what is entailed in each definition are outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Act.  The law states that the federal government must make a free appropriate public education available to "any individual child with a disability who needs special education and related services, even if the child has not failed or been retained in a course or grade, and is advancing from grade to grade."

What does the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act provide?

The major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Act provide that:

• States and school districts must offer free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities, categorized above.  Those states and school districts must identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities to determine whether the child is eligible to receive free public education.

• Each child receiving free public education through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act must be evaluated and must have an Individual Education Program designated for them.  This program will address each student's special needs and must include the parents in outlining and implementing that child's specific education program.

• To the extent available students subject to the Act should be placed in classrooms and educated with children who are not disabled.  The states and school districts shall also provide procedural safeguards to the students and their parents including due process, the right to appeal to a federal district court and the right to receive attorney's fees.

The individual education programs for each student include: transportation; speech pathology and audiology services; psychological services; physical and occupational therapy; music therapy; recreation; counseling services; and medical services.  These should all be tailored to meet the needs of each individual student who falls under the Act.

Reasons for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was enacted in 1975 due to overwhelming evidence that children with physical or mental disabilities in public schools were being ignored in the classroom.  Studies found that public schools in the United States educated only 1 out of 5 children with disabilities.  At that time, many states had laws that explicitly excluded children with certain types of disabilities from attending public school, including children who were blind, deaf, and children labeled "emotionally disturbed" or "mentally retarded."  By 1975 over 1 million children with categorized disabilities were excluded from education in the public school system.  Another 3 and a half million children were "warehoused" in living situations that did nothing more than attend to their immediate needs.


In providing federal funds to education the federal government instituted guidelines that require local school districts to comply with certain guidelines when disciplining students with disabilities.  Students with disabilities can be prone to causing disturbances in the classroom much more frequently than those of able-bodied students.  The question addressed by the Individuals with Disabilities Act is when should the student with a disability be disciplined and how.  

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act a student who is disruptive in class must be evaluated on why he/she reacted in such a way.  The teacher of the student, with the participation of the parents, is required to analyze the disruption and look at whether that specific disruption was in line with the individual's disability.  According to the Act a child who is removed from a classroom more than 10 cumulative school days due to his/her behavior the child is required to seek outside services.  If the student's parents do not agree to the alternate placement of a student then the student may be unilaterally moved to an alternate placement for up to 45 days at a time if the student has brought a weapon to school or to a school function or knowingly possessed or used illegal drugs or sold or solicited controlled substances at school.

If the student is deemed to be a threat to other students then the 45 day removal period may be extended.  This is done by an evaluation by an impartial hearing to determine whether there should be an extension.  The extension may last for another 45 days if approved.    

If a child is suspended for more than 10 consecutive days the IEP team must convene to discuss the education of the student outside the classroom setting.  A school district is not prohibited from suspending a student for another 10 consecutive days but only if educational services are provided for the student.  If it is determined that the infractions that led to the suspension are not due to the disability of the child then the child may be suspended for a longer period of time in line with an equal suspension that would be given to a non-disabled student.

How are these protections enforced?

The Individuals with Disabilities Act does provide safeguards to insure that the rights of a student with disabilities are protected from arbitrary suspensions and discipline from a school district.  The IDEA guarantees a number of safeguards to the parents of students with disabilities which include: the right to be informed of the procedural safeguards; right to see his/her child's education records; the right to be a member of the IEP team; to participate in their child's education; to file complaints with the state education agency; and the right to request independent mediation involving aspects of their child's education.


There are many arguments involved with the IDEA.  Complaints from teachers and school administrators include the failure of the government to provide appropriate funding and that the time spent by teachers to take part in IEPs are time that can be spent developing teaching methods and that non-disabled students pay the price for the increased attention that disabled students are allotted under the law.

Taxpayers often criticize the Act because it provides a free public education to all students with disabilities and there is no limit to the extent of the disability.  The argument is that even students who have little to no cognitive abilities qualify for free government paid education as well as expensive medical treatments associated with that education

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and "No Child Left Behind"

In 2004 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was amended to align itself with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.  The amended act provisions have come under fire because they require that children with disabilities achieve certain goals in the classroom.  Many complain that the disabilities themselves prevent any continuous forward progress in education.  


GPA Calculators

GPA Calculators

Guide to GPA Calculators

A GPA calculator is used to determine a students grade point average over a specified time.  Grad point averages are used to determine a student's academic performance compared to other students in the same class or institution.  

GPA calculators can come in several different forms, as there are various methods for calculating grade point average.  Most schools calculate grade point average on a 4.0 scale, where a 4.0 is the highest grade point average that can be achieved.  However, many other forms of grade point averages are used, including a 5.0 scale, a letter grade (A, B, C, D and F), or a total points grade point average (where all classes are added into a totaled score).  

A students grade point average is weighted by the number of credit hours each class.  High schools will often weight classes equally, as each class is generally given the same amount of time.  Higher education classes generally break down classes by the total amount of class time per week.  These classes can range anywhere between 1 hour classes to 6 hours classes per week.  The more credit hours a class has, the more weighted it will be towards the student's grade point average.  

High schools may use higher weighted classes for students taking advanced classes that are harder than standard classes.  These classes allow a student to have a higher grade value for the grade they receive.  For example, an A in a standard class may be value as a 4.0, where in an advanced placement class it can be wroth 5.25.  


1. First enter the total amount of credits previously earned.  This will allow the GPA calculator to determine your exact GPA including the newly entered grades.  You can also use this feature to determine what your GPA will be if you get certain grades in future classes.

2. Next, enter the number of credits you are taking in the current grading period.  The number of credits you enter will be used by the GPA calculator to determine what your grade point average is across those classes.

3. You will next need to enter a grade for each class.  You may use a letter scale, in which you provide an A, B, C, D, or F grade for each class.  You may also enter grades in between these letter grades.  These would include examples of A+ or A- grades.  Such grades will be used on a scale to determine your grade point average.  You may also enter each classes grade on a numerical scale.  Numerical scales can be in the standard GPA format (0.0 – 4.0) or can use an alternate scaling method.

4. Once you enter all of your grade information, you must submit your results on the GPA calculator, which will give you your grade period average as well as your cumulative GPA.  Once completed, your final GPA will be determined by the GPA calculator.  


1. In order for the GPA calculator to work, you must know and understand how your school calculates their grade point average and what the scaling method is.  Contact you school's academic advising office if you are unsure of the exact method for determining grades.  It will be helpful to look at previous grades to determine what scale the school uses.  Of course, you cannot do this if this is your first marking period, so contact the school for more information.

2. The GPA calculator can be used to determine future grades.  By entering different grades, you can see exactly how high or how low your GPA may drop if you receive certain grades in future classes or semesters.  This can be a valuable tool for setting goals of what grades you must obtain in order to reach certain grade point average levels.  

3. In order to manually calculate your current GPA on a 4.0 scale, take your total credit hour points and divide by the number of GPA hours you have taken over that same grading period.  In order to determine quality points, you can use the chart below.  For each grade received, enter the quality points multiplied by the GPA hours for each class.  Add all of these together and divide by the number of classes taken, which will leave you with your grade point average.  

Final Grade Quality Points Credit Hours

A 4.00 x Number of Hours

A- 3.67 x Number of Hours

B+ 3.33 x Number of Hours

B 3.00 x Number of Hours

B- 2.67 x Number of Hours

C+ 2.33 x Number of Hours

C 2.00 x Number of Hours

C- 1.67 x Number of Hours

D 1.00 x Number of Hours

F 0.00 x Number of Hours

4. Sometimes a student may receive an incomplete or withdrawn grade for a class.  You must check with your school's policy for grading, but these grades will typically not affect your grade point average.  While not included on your grade point average, they will usually be included on your final transcript or noted under your GPA in some form.  The same may go for audited classes, usually given a grade of “X”, which indicates a student went to the class but was not graded.  

5. Many times, schools will give awards or special designations for achieving certain grade point average levels.  Cum Laude, Summa Cum Laude, and Magna Cum Laude are special honor designations given by most schools to indicate if a student achieved a certain grade point average.  Check with your school to determine at what grade these designations are given.  They are often different from school to school.  Some schools may give these designations to those students in certain GPA percentiles or base it on a specific grade point average number.

Curves and Rank Based Grading

Grading on a curve and rank based grading is a system of academic grading used to understand the performance of a student within a defined group.  Curves can either be set outside of a ranking system or directly use a ranking system.  

A rank based grading curve assigns grades according to a pre-determined percentage of how many students can get certain grades.  Below is an example of pure rank-based curving which uses a classic bell curve style.  Note that most students in the class will receive the average grade of a C while few students will receive an A or an F. 

Grade Awarded percentage of students

who will receive this grade

A    top 5%

B    next 26%

C    middle 38%

D    next 26%

F    bottom 5%

A popular model of curve and rank based grading allows the grader to use a normal distribution of grades to track education performance.  The top grade, usually an A, is given for academic performance that beats the mean score by a specified amount, usually +1.5 standard deviation.  Under this grading scheme, a B would be awarded for an academic performance of between +.5 and +1.5, while an average score would receive a C.  

GPA calculators can be used in a variety of ways to determine grades using countless methods, so always check with your school to see if they are using a curve or rank based grading before using any grade point average calculator.  

While by definition most students in a curved grading system will receive an average grade, the grading can be harsh as it requires the failure of a certain amount of students, no matter whether they have adequately mastered the class or not.  

Curved grading is popular with some schools who wish to eliminate inflated grades, in which students are passed through classes regardless of how well they learn or understand the material.  The curved grading system also has proven to push students to perform at higher levels, often for fear of failure by becoming behind.  Competition can often become increased in these classes, as students must outperform their peers in order to achieve good grades.

Grade Scales Using Percentages

Some schools still use an outdated formed of calculating grades based on a 100% scale.  In this scale, students need to achieve a certain percentage in order to achieve their grades.  The percentage is typically calculated from the percentage of answers correct on tests and quizzes throughout the grading period.  

Most schools on a 100% scale will usually assign a letter grade according to what percentage the student falls in.  

An A is typically between 90% and 100%.

A B is typically between 80% and 90%.

A C is typically between a 70% – 80%

A D is typically between a 65% – 70%

A failing grade is typically any grade below the 65% mark.  

While these percentages put the grade in a numerical form, in order to use it with a GPA calculator, a grade point average in the traditional 4.0 scale must be converted from the 100% scale.  To do this, you must take the letter grade given for each class and multiply it by the weighted score for each grade.  For example, an A is typically given a GPA value of 4.0.  Multiply this by the credit hours for the class. Add this number and divide by the total number of credit hours taken over the grading period.  

If you are unsure what grading method your school is going to use in order to put into the gpa calculator, you should immediately speak with your teacher or the school's academic department, who will help guide you through the process.  Many school's websites now offer help and information regarding the details of their grading structures.  Knowing a school's grading structure can go a long way in helping you achieve good grades in school.

General Formulas

GPA calculators use the following formulas to determine how to calculate a grade point average on either the 4.0 scale or the 5.0 scale.

How To Calculate GPA On A 4.0 GPA Scale

A = 4 points

A- = 3.75 points

B+ = 3.25 points

B = 3 points

B- = 2.75 points

C+ = 2.5 points

C = 2 points

D = 1 point  

WF/F = 0 points

P/NP are not included in a student’s GPA.

I(Incomplete) and W(Withdrawals) do not have an impact on GPA.

How To Calculate GPA On A 5.0 GPA Scale

A = 5 points

B = 4 points

C = 3 points  

D = 2 point

F = 1 points

P/NP are not included in a student’s GPA.