No Child Left Behind Act: Facts
Signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8th of 2002, the No Child Left behind Act was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which was regarded as the central federal law for pre-collegiate education schools and courses. First enacted in 1965 and reauthorized in 1994, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided resources and programs to aid disadvantaged students in the United States.
The NCLB Act is an act of Congress and concerns the education of children in American public schools. The NCLB Act of 2001 supports standards-based education reform that is based on the belief that setting high standards and goals can improve an individual student’s educational outcome. The No Child Left Behind Act requires all states to develop evaluations in basic skills for students in all grades; these assessments are then used to determine which schools are eligible and in need of federal funding. The No Child Left Behind Act does not assert national achievement standards; these qualifications are set by the individual states.
Since the enactment of the NCLB Act of 2001, the United States Congress has increased federal funding for education by $12.2 billion dollars. ($42.2 billion in 2001 to $54.4 billion in 2007.)
The NCLB Act of 2001 was proposed by George W. Bush on January 23rd of 2001. The act was co-authored by Representatives George Miller and John Boehner as well as Senators Judd Gregg and Edward Kennedy. The United States House of Representatives passed the No Child Left Behind Bill on May 23, 2001 and the United States Senate passed it on June 14th of 2001. President Bush later signed it into law on January 8th of 2002.
The Adequate Yearly Progress Calculation:
The Adequate Yearly Progress Scale of the NLCB Act is a measurement explicitly defined by the United States Federal Government that enables the Department of Education to determine how each public school and school district in the United States is performing according to the results on standardized tests. The NCLB of 2001 requires each state to establish a timeline for yearly progress. The timeline ensures that all students will meet or exceed a state’s specific standards no later than 12 years after the 2001-2012 school year. These timeframes are instituted and developed by state education agencies who work under guidance from the United States federal government.
Adequate Yearly Progress tests require all kindergarten through 12th grade schools to demonstrate improvement in mathematics, reading/language arts and graduation rates (for high schools) or attendance rates (middle and elementary schools). Adequate Yearly Progress requires all public schools to satisfy three annual tests. That being said, the specific requirements of the evaluation process are determined on a state-by-state basis. For example, in Illinois, the requirements are as follows:
• At least 95 percent of students are tested for mathematics and reading
• At least 95 percent of students satisfy the minimum annual target for reading and mathematics standards
• At least 95 percent of students meet the minimum target for graduation rates or attendance.
According to the United States Department of Education, the Adequate Yearly Progress Calculation is a tool to determine how schools need to improve and where financial resources or government aid needs to be allocated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 enforces provisions for schools that do not exhibit adequate yearly progress. Those academic institutions or districts that do not meet the Adequate Yearly Progress standard for two years in a row are labeled as “schools in need of improvement” and are subsequently subject to intervention by the appropriate State Education Agency in their jurisdiction.
Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act:
The No Child Left Behind Act requires all government-run schools receiving federal funds to administer state-wide standardized tests to all students. These annual tests are given to all students under the same conditions and the scores are used to determine whether the school is efficient in the way they spend their funds and their overall teaching platform. All schools who receive funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education of 1965 are required to make Adequate Yearly Progress in these test scores. For example, within each year, fourth graders must be better on these tests than the previous year’s fourth grade class.
If a public school yields poor results on a consistent basis, the NCLB Act will engage in the following steps to improve the facility’s scores:
• A school that fails according to the Adequate Yearly Progress Calculation for a second consecutive year will be publicly labeled as a facility in “need of improvement.” Once labeled, the school, according to the NCLB Act of 2001, is required to develop a two-year improvement plan for the specific subjects that the school is failing to teach well. Students are then given the option to transfer to a better facility within the school district.
• Failing to meet the requirements of the Adequate Yearly Progress measure for three consecutive years will force the school to offer supplemental educational programs—including free tutoring—to struggling students.
• If an academic institution misses its Adequate Yearly Progress score for a 4th consecutive year, the school will be labeled as mandating “corrective action.” This label may involve a wholesale replacement of the school’s staff, an introduction of new curriculum or an extension of the amount of time students spend in class.
• If a school fails the Adequate Yearly Progress for five consecutive years, the state educational agency will plan to restructure the entire facility. This plan will be affirmed and implemented if the school fails to hit its Adequate Yearly Progress target. Common actions for this occurrence are closing the school, turning the facility into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school or asking the state to run the school directly.
The NCLB Act requires all states to provide highly effective and qualified teachers to all students. States are required to set their own standards for what is regarded as “highly effective and qualified.” Furthermore, the NCLB Act requires each state to set one lofty and challenging standard for its students. This goal is then attached with curriculum standards that are applied to all students.
NLCB Act Summary and Purpose:
Supporters of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 claim that the act increased accountability for schools and teachers. According to the NCLB Act of 2001, schools are required to pass annual tests that will evaluate how a school’s students have improved over the fiscal year. These tests are the foundation of research that is used to evaluate schools and their ability to meet the standards they are required to fulfill. If these improvements are not realized, the schools will face decreased financing/funding and other limitations that increase accountability. According to supporters of the effort, these provisions help schools and teachers realize the significance of the educational system and how schooling affects the nation as a whole.
Proponents of the NLCB Act also claim that the legislation links student outcomes with State academic content standards and measures student performance in a more effective manner. Supporters also believe that the NLCB Act of 2001 provides information for parents by requiring schools to deliver detailed report cards on schools and districts with regard to their Adequate Yearly Performance measurable.